Originally the garden was established in 1626 as "Jardin royal des plantes médicinales" by the personal physicians of French king Louis XIII (1601–1643). The copper engraving from 1636 shows the garden in this early period. From 1640 at the latest, the public could also visit the former royal medicinal herb garden, now called "Jardin du Roy". In 1793, it became part of the "Muséum national d'histoire naturelle." Several exhibition buildings, greenhouses, and a zoo have been added over the centuries.
Frédéric Scalberge, Jardin du Roy pour la culture des plantes médécinales, à Paris, copper engraving, 54,5 x 73 cm, 1636; source: Bibliothèque nationale de France, Gallica, GEDD-627(98RES), public domain.