Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) (1881–1938) was born the son of a customs official in Thessaloniki, now Greece, and initially completed his military training. He was in contact with the opposition group of the Young Turks, but could not realize his goals there at first, because he was kept in check by his rival Enver Paşa (ca. 1881–1922). During the First World War, Kemal was able to gain influence and power through his achievements in the battle for the Gallipoli peninsula. In the course of the Turkish War of Independence, Kemal became commander-in-chief. After the victory of the Turks and the founding of the Turkish Republic, he became their first president and tried to modernize and Westernize the country.
Portrait of Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) (1881–1938) with fur cap, first president of the Turkish Republic, black-and-white photography, 1926, unknown photographer, in: De Katholieke Illustratie; source: Nederlandse Nationaal Archief / Spaarnestad, signature FA001010357.