The Greek island of Chios lies in the eastern Aegean Sea off the Turkish coast. During the Greek War of Independence (1821–1829), in April 1822, the Ottomans committed a massacre, killing about 20,000 people and enslaving about 45,000. The incident caused an uproar in Europe. It was discussed in many publications and depicted in paintings, which contributed significantly to strengthening philhellenism and the negative stereotype of the "cruel Ottomans".
Eugène Delacroix (1798–1863), The Massacre at Chios, oil on canvas, 419 x 354 cm, 1824; source: © Bildagentur für Kunst, Kultur und Geschichte (bpk) | RMN | Félicien Faillet, image number: 00051163, location of the original: Musée du Louvre, Paris.