Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein, politician, 1773–1777 studied law at Göttingen, 1780 entered Prussian civil service, 1786 journey to England, 1804–1808 with a brief interruption Prussian minister. In his Nassau Memorandum ("Nassauer Denkschrift") of 1807 he advocated local self-government. 1807–1808 "Prussian reforms" (abolishment of serfdom, 1807; municipal reform, 1808; edict of 24 November / 16 December 1808); he also furthered the progress of military reforms, 1808–1812 after Napoleon declared him an enemy of France, Stein lived as an refugee in Brno, Opava and Prague. 1812–1813 while in Russian service he initiated the Prussian-Russian alliance.
Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794–1872), Heinrich Friedrich Karl vom und zum Stein (1757–1831), pen-and-ink / pencil drawing, 26.2 x 20.2 cm, Rome, 1822; source: Koch, Georg: Der Freiherr vom Stein: Von Staat, Volk und Bildung, Kassel 1931.